It sounds so straightforward ‚ÄĒ the New York Public Library had a collection of videotapes AIDS activists made decades ago with vintage camcorders back when they were heavy behemoths you had to rest on your shoulder with full-size VHS or Beta tapes inside. Filmmaker/journalist David France combed painstakingly through the clips to compose his powerful 2012 documentary ‚ÄúHow to Survive a Plague.‚ÄĚ
But how this was achieved ‚ÄĒ what format was the footage stored in? What condition was it in? Could anyone go in and check these out with a library card? How did France pull this off?
In some ways, it‚Äôs the least interesting part of the film‚Äôs story, which is told via a sobering chronology of video footage shot by angry protesters ‚ÄĒ the kind the Religious Right calls ‚Äúmilitant homosexual activists.‚ÄĚ
The film has been almost universally praised. The New York Times called it ‚Äúinspiring‚ÄĚ and crackling with ‚Äúcurrents of rage, fear, fiery determination and finally triumph.‚ÄĚ It has a 100 percent freshness rating among critics on Rotten Tomatoes (a film quality-ranking site), several awards including ‚Äúbest documentary‚ÄĚ from the Boston Society of Film Critics. This weekend it‚Äôs up for both an Independent Spirit Award and an Oscar. Gold Derby, a site that predicts entertainment industry awards, gives it a 4/1 chance at winning the Oscar (behind ‚ÄúSearching for Sugar Man‚ÄĚ which it gives 13/8 odds). ‚Äú5 Broken Cameras,‚ÄĚ ‚ÄúThe Gatekeepers‚ÄĚ and ‚ÄúThe Invisible War‚ÄĚ (made by the ‚ÄúOutrage‚ÄĚ team of Kirby Dick and Amy Ziering) are also nominated.
For ‚ÄúPlauge,‚ÄĚ France took footage ‚ÄĒ some of which was housed at the New York Public Library ‚ÄĒ shot by 31 videographers and paces it chronologically to the story of the formation of ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power), a group that formed in March 1987 in a spirit of extreme frustration during a speech activist (and ‚ÄúNormal Heart‚ÄĚ playwright) Larry Kramer gave at the Lesbian and Gay Community Services Center in New York.
France, during a lengthy phone interview last weekend before he was scheduled to fly to Los Angeles on Tuesday, gladly shares the logistics behind ‚ÄúPlague‚Äôs‚ÄĚ formation.
A veteran investigative journalist, author and GLAAD Media Award winner (for a GQ piece on gays in Iraq) who‚Äôs had his work published in everything from the New Yorker to Ladies‚Äô Home Journal, France says he was a graduate student during the time AIDS hit in the early 1980s and having written about it extensively over the years, he knew activists had brought cameras to their protests. And yes, the process of crafting ‚ÄúPlague‚ÄĚ was a lot more involved than simply checking tapes out of the library.
‚ÄúThe tapes from the library are actually just a small portion of the footage you see in the film,‚ÄĚ France, who‚Äôs gay, says. ‚ÄúThat‚Äôs really the first door I went through, this archive of AIDS activism video that‚Äôs housed in the Manuscript Division of the New York Library, where you go if you want to read Lincoln‚Äôs letters. It‚Äôs an exclusive corner of the library that‚Äôs not accessible to the general public and everybody‚Äôs going around wearing white gloves and handling antiquities. In one corner, they have a television and a VCR and you watch the AIDS footage recorded in those early days. It‚Äôs just raw footage, not really ever intended for public view. Some of it you‚Äôll be watching and all of a sudden it will go to a gay porn video, which just happened to be on the same tape they recorded on.‚ÄĚ
France says the library kept all the tapes ‚ÄĒ recorded in every home video format on the market in those years as one might imagine ‚ÄĒ but had transferred them all to the Betacam SP format, a higher resolution tape on larger cassettes that for years was the broadcast standard and is still in use today. France convinced the library to let him take select footage to a nearby production lab and have it digitized. He ended up with about 100 hours and says the process became difficult as the project moved along.
‚ÄúThey‚Äôre really not accustomed to working on a film production schedule, so trying to get them to hurry got more and more difficult as we went along,‚ÄĚ he says.
And that was just the starting point ‚ÄĒ in the library footage, France saw other people holding video cameras. He started tracking them down one by one and eventually found a group of people, many long-time AIDS survivors themselves, who had videotape footage they had never revisited. Again, formats remained a challenge.
‚ÄúWe had all this stuff in so many different formats from private collections,‚ÄĚ he says. ‚ÄúWe were constantly scouring Craigslist and eBay for decks that would play these old tapes. We ended up with about 800 hours and that really became the building blocks of the film.‚ÄĚ
And yes, France says it did take some persuasion to get these individuals to hand over their footage.
France says, ‚ÄúA lot of these people had moved on but I think now have started to see the real value in this footage. I think they gradually started to realize, that yes, enough time has passed and now is the time to really use it and this is the project.‚ÄĚ
France said his project is timely and important because many of the other landmark AIDS pieces, from Kramer‚Äôs play to Randy Shilts‚Äô ‚ÄúAnd the Band Played On‚ÄĚ were written before the era of anti-retroviral therapy when HIV morphed into a more manageable condition.
He says the film is important for anyone interested in the AIDS fight to see.
‚ÄúThere were even people in ACT UP who didn‚Äôt know the outcomes of many of these things,‚ÄĚ he says. ‚ÄúIf you think you know the story of AIDS, this film will surprise you and that goes for just about everybody.‚ÄĚ
WASHINGTON BLADE: Will this be your first time at the Academy Awards?
DAVID FRANCE: Yes. I‚Äôve never gotten any closer before than my television screen.
BLADE: Have you watched very often over the years?
FRANCE: Oh yeah. My boyfriend and I always have an Oscar party. With ballots and everything. I‚Äôve never won.
BLADE: What‚Äôs your favorite Oscar memory?
FRANCE: Tom Hanks‚Äô acceptance speech when he won for ‚ÄúPhiladelphia.‚ÄĚ That‚Äôs really seared in my memory.
BLADE: What did you think of Michael Moore‚Äôs controversial speech when he won the category you‚Äôre up for? Ballsy or inappropriate for the occasion?
FRANCE: I think if you‚Äôve got an audience of a billion people and you‚Äôve got something to say, you need to say it. That‚Äôs not to say I‚Äôm intending any surprises should I have that opportunity.
BLADE: Have you seen the competition?
FRANCE: Of course. They‚Äôre all brilliant films.
BLADE: If you win, where will you put Oscar?
FRANCE? I‚Äôm not sure. I keep the other awards we‚Äôve won in the production office so everyone on the crew can enjoy them and hopefully see their own contribution but if we get this little gold thing, I‚Äôm not sure. I have no idea.
BLADE: Do you feel AIDS, as horrible as it was and is, put gay issues on the national radar and that ended up being a silver lining to the cloud or is that an absurd oversimplification?
FRANCE? No, it‚Äôs absolutely true. Before that, gay people were entirely disenfranchised and we were not seen as being contributing members to the culture at all. We had no role whatsoever in civic life ‚Ä¶ From those ashes (of AIDS), now we have a president who acknowledges us as human beings and Stonewall is mentioned in the same breath as Seneca Falls.
BLADE: How did you feel when Dustin Lance Black won for ‚ÄúMilk‚ÄĚ?
FRANCE: I felt it was incredible. He gave a great speech and I thought it was a very, very good movie.
BLADE: Did you plan all along to submit it for a nomination? What‚Äôs the process like?
FRANCE: There are all kinds of rules about it playing in New York and L.A. and being reviewed by the New York Times and the Los Angeles Times and that‚Äôs just the first threshold. I was lucky I had a distributor who saw the potential for the film early on and made sure we did everything we needed to do for both the Oscars and the Independent Spirit Awards. ‚Ä¶ Anytime you make a film, sure, you fantasize about getting an Oscar nomination and it‚Äôs really just because you want more people to see it. An Oscar bump is a tremendous thing.